School Psychology Resources Online
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Guide to info on counseling, behavior disorders, learning disabilities, etc. [broken link]
Social Psychology Network
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Provides social psychology database on the Internet. More more than 5,000 links related to psychology. [broken link]
The Australian Psychological Society
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The Australian Psychological Society (APS) is the largest professional association for psychologists in Australia, representing more than 14,000 members. The APS is committed to advancing psychology as a discipline and profession. It spreads the message that psychologists make a difference to peoplesí lives, through improving scientific knowledge and community well-being. [broken link]
The Myth of Self-Actualization
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I argue that the principal function of a theory of self-actualization is to establish a "myth" or meaningful narrative account of human development that provides conceptual support for people seeking fulfilment and offers clear normative and practical guidance. Self-actualization theory should be evaluated primarily in terms of its effectiveness as myth rather than its logical precision or empirical confirmation. An effective myth, I suggest, must be believable, consequential, and morally defensible. An examination of Maslow's theory of self-actualization reveals inadequacies as a mythical interpretation of personal development. There are ambiguities and contradictions in the theory, and several conceptual elements may actually inhibit or corrupt the process of self-actualization. The failure of Maslow's theory is due, I suggest, to confusing the project with naturalistic science and to the adoption of biological metaphors and empirical methods that are fundamentally inappropriate. A more fruitful approach may be found in emphasizing a mythical perspective from which life becomes a shared quest for the human good.
The Role and Scope of Transpersonal Psychology
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In a previous article (Daniels and McNutt, 1997) we raised a number of issues related to the role and scope of transpersonal psychology. Two seminal articles written by Fontana and Slack (1996a, 1996b) initially prompted our discussion. These articles were instrumental in facilitating the formation of the Transpersonal Psychology Section of the BPS.
The Shadow in Transpersonal Psychology
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I discuss the relevance of the archetype of the shadow for our understanding of transpersonal psychology, examining this in relation to two interdependent themes: (a) manifestations and implications of transpersonal psychology's own shadow, and (b) the importance of recognising and incorporating our transformative experiences of the archetypal shadow.
On the basis of this discussion I present a preliminary taxonomy of transpersonal experiences and practices that incorporates aspects of the transformative shadow. This taxonomy itself raises a number of important and largely ignored questions within transpersonal psychology, including that of the ontological status and psychological significance of the transcendental and of the archetypes of good and evil.
The transpersonal self: 2. Comparing seven psychological theories
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This is the second of two papers in which I examine the meaning and significance of concepts of the transpersonal self. An earlier paper focussed on the historical development and experiential foundations of religious and metaphysical ideas about the soul. The present paper focuses on a critical comparison of ideas about the transpersonal self as understood within seven major psychological theories - those of Abraham Maslow, C.G. Jung, Roberto Assagioli, Stan Grof, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Peggy Wright. From an examination of these various approaches, I identify nineteen distinct meanings of the transpersonal self. I suggest that it is not possible at this stage in the development of transpersonal psychology to select any one theory or conception as being the most adequate. On the contrary, it is important to learn from each of these interesting and very different perspectives.
The Transpersonal Self:1. A Psychohistory and Phenomenology of the Soul
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This is the first of two papers in which I examine the meaning and significance of concepts of the transpersonal self. In this paper I focus on the development and experiential foundations of religious and metaphysical ideas about the soul. These ideas, I suggest, have profoundly influenced psychological approaches to the transpersonal self. A psychohistorical examination of the concept of the soul suggests that it encompasses a varied and complex set of aspects and meanings. The different aspects of the soul are, I suggest, based on interpretations of a wide variety of human experiences, including life and death, dreams, out-of-body experiences, hauntings, possession, self-reflexive consciousness, inspiration, and mystical experience. In general terms, concepts of the soul seem to have evolved from a primitive belief in a quasi-physical reality, through the later incorporation of psychological qualities, to what may be a relatively recent focus on spiritual experience. Conceptual difficulties can arise when we fail to recognise the differences between these levels of interpretation.
Towards a transpersonal psychology of evil
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I examine the philosophical and psychological roots of moral evil, which I see as a potential that emerges alongside the development of ego consciousness and personality. In this way, ego development gives rise to the possibilities of both chosen (deliberate) and unchosen (characterological and projective) evil. I then examine the ways in which characterological and projective evil may be consequences of damaging socialisation experiences in which there is a failure of empathic concern for the developing child. On this basis, I propose a model in which the various forms of human good and evil can be understood in terms of the two dimensions of (1) empathy vs. egocentrism and (2) benevolence vs. malevolence. The solution to human evil is the encouragement of both empathy (head) and benevolence (heart), together with the capacity for moral effectance (hands). Such development may largely depend upon the role that significant others can play in acting as empathic, benevolent and morally effective "self-centres". Finally I discuss the implications of Ken Wilber's Quadrant Model for our understanding of human evil before proposing a general transpersonal perspective in which moral good is seen in terms of an increasing expansion of empathy and moral concern. From this perspective, moral expansion is a critical feature in the process of self-realisation, which may be viewed simultaneously as the realisation of spirit. [broken link]
World Lectures Hall : Psychology
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Set of annotated links to online courses, course descriptions, tutorials, assignments, tests and other materials used in the teaching of psychology. [broken link]